High protein keto diet
Intermittent fasting (IF)
Medium chaintryglycerides (mct)
NSV (non-scale victory)
Standard keto diet
Targeted Keto diet
Type 1 DIABETES
Type 2 DIABETES
The ketogenic diet is a fairly simple approach to eating healthy foods that are low carb, high fat, and moderate protein. The lack of carbs forces your body to burn fat rather than glucose to produce energy. The result is ketone production, increased energy, and improved mental clarity, along with a myriad of other health benefits.
Autophagy is a cycle in the body that destroys old, damaged cells and recycles any remaining valuable parts. Translated from Greek as 'to eat one's self' autophagy is responsible for killing diseased cells and getting them out of the body.
Autophagy is relevant to keto because carb-restriction promotes macroautophagy that protects the brain and is thought to help prevent Alzheimer's and memory problems.
Autophagy is also closely associated with intermittent fasting because fasting prevents weaker or damaged cells from feeding, leading to their termination and rebirth at a faster rate.
SEE ALSO INTERMITTENT FASTING
Beta-hydroxyburate, also known as BHB, is one of the ketones created during the ketogenic process. BHB is the most important of the ketones created during ketosis because it makes up three quarters of the ketones produced and is the most efficient ketone for use in making energy and feeding the brain.
BHB is derived from another keto produced by the liver during ketosis, Acetoacetate (AcAc), which creates 2 versions of BHB. D-BHB is created in higher amounts and is used for energy, and is responsible for the antiaging effects of ketones as your body’s fuel. L-BHB is a ketone produced in lower quantities and it’s used to help in the synthesis of the fatty acids you eat.
BHB is what you’re aiming for on keto, and it’s the ketone being measured when you use a blood ketone meter.
SEE ALSO KETONES
A carbohydrate is any part of food -mainly sugars or starches- that is metabolized by the body into sugar and turned into glucose for fuel. Carbohydrates are one of the 3 major macronutrients and the only one the human body can live without. The basis for of the keto diet is the severe restriction of carbs to stop the production of glucose for bodily energy.
SEE ALSO GLUCOSE
CYCLICAL KETO DIET:
Cyclical Keto is a version of the keto diet that is primarily used by performance athletes who are working to gain endurance or strength and muscle mass.
For this version of keto, the diet runs on a 7-day cycle. The first 2 days have no carb restriction and healthy carbs are consumed in higher quantities. The remaining 5 days of the week are spent eating low-carb and getting into ketosis as the higher intensity endurance or strength workout burns off the carbohydrate surplus.
Cyclical keto is not for beginners to the keto diet nor for those new to high intensity training.
SEE TARGETED KETO
Electrolytes are minerals that produce an electrical charge when mixed in water. Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, Chloride, Hydrogen carbonate, and Hydrogen phosphate are all electrolytes that we get from food.
Because our brain uses electrical signals to communicate with out muscles, it is imperative that our systems have the electrolyte balance to make sure those signals get through.
Keto requires a special attention to electrolytes as keto acts as a diuretic and electrolytes are easily lost through urination. Not paying attention to electrolyte balance on keto can result in muscle fatigue and the symptoms of the dreaded keto flu.
SEE ALSO KETO FLU
Endogenous ketones are the ketones created by your body for its energy and ketogenic processes. These ketones are metabolized by the liver and come from the fatty acids you eat. But ketones can only be created in high enough levels to be used as fuel when glucose has left the blood in sufficient amounts. If glucose stores are burned off and fatty acids are nutritionally available, your liver will switch over to making endogenous ketones for fuel.
Exogenous ketones, simply translated, are ketones that are made outside the body. These ketones are created externally, similar to daily vitamin pills, and taken in the form of a supplement to give your body a boost of ketones for energy and to assist the processes of ketosis. Because they are already formed ketones, they work faster in your body than the normal process of metabolizing ketones from the fatty acids you eat.
Fasting is the choice to abstain from eating for a given period of time. Fasting restricts calories and nutrients, and can have many positive health results, including starving diseases and kick-starting weight loss.
Many people use fasting as a way to get into ketosis quicker and force their body to burn off excess glucose at a higher rate, leaving their system and liver primed to begin ketone production.
Fat is the falsely vilified macronutrient that serves as the source for your body's new ketone-fueled energy when on the keto diet. On keto, healthy fats comprise up to 70% of your daily nutrition. Fat is our friend
Fat adapted is a metabolic state that typically occurs after the first 30 days of being in ketosis. At the fat adapted stage, your body and brain chemistry no longer have cravings for carbs or sugar, your insulin levels have regulated and become normal, and it's the point at which your body reaches its most efficient fat-burning metabolism. Meaning that the stored fat you want to get rid of to trim down becomes a larger part of your body's fat-burning fuel source.
SEE ALSO KETOSIS
Usually made from a combination of ingredients such as butter, coconut oil, nuts and seeds, fat bombs are the perfect snack for those following the Ketogenic diet. It’s important for those who follow a low carb or keto diet to consume plenty of fats in order to keep their energy levels up in the absence of carbohydrates.
A fat fast is a type of fasting that’s suitable for those who reach a weight loss plateau when they’re already keto-adapted. During a fat fast, you get about 80 to 90 percent of your calories from healthy fats while keeping your calorie intake low, no more than 1000 to 1200 kcal a day. A fat fast should last no more than 3 to 5 days: any longer, and you risk sending your body into starvation mode, losing muscle, and becoming deficient in essential nutrients.
Gluconeogenesis occurs when your body is in a ketogenic state, deprived of glucose, and your body metabolizes excess protein into a form of glucose to is use as fuel. Gluconegenesis will kick your body out of ketosis. To avoid this problem, use the niKETO macro calculator and stay within the recommended daily protein allotment.
Glucose is a simple sugar that can be used in the body as an energy source. Glucose is the metabolic result of eating carbohydrates.
The aim of the keto diet is to switch the body AWAY from a glucose-based fuel source, and instead rely on the ketones provided through healthy fats. Glucose is an inefficient energy source that can lead to serious health problems like sugar diabetes and weight control issues.
SEE ALSO CARBOHYDRATES
Glycogen is the stored form of glucose. When more carbohydrates are eaten than are needed for energy, the body stores the metabolized glucose in the cells of the body, specifically in the muscles and liver.
Glycogen is only released when the body is low on glucose and needs energy. Keto and glycogen are closely related because a majority of the body's glycogen stores must be converted back into glucose and burned off before entering a state of ketosis. This is why ketosis can take as long as 2 weeks to fully enter.
SEE ALSO GLUCOSE
HIGH PROTEIN KETO DIET:
The High Protein Ketonic Diet, which is mostly used by athletes or extremely active people, recommends 5% carbs, 35% protein and 60% fat.
Insulin resistance can be a result of overeating a diet rich in glucose. Having too much glucose in the body, with nowhere to put it, stimulates the grow of more fat tissue which results in weight gain and body flab. The excess insulin created to deal with the high levels of glucose leaves the insulin less effective and causes glucose to remain in the blood resulting in high blood sugar that can result in type 2 diabetes
SEE ALSO INSULIN
Insulin regulates the amount of glucose in your blood once it's been converted over from the carbs you eat. Insulin makes sure your blood sugar levels don't get too high or low which can result in shock. If your blood sugar is too high, insulin helps store the excess glucose in your cells, since glucose can't enter cells on its own. If your blood sugar dips and your body calls for more energy, it's insulin that goes into the cells and retrieves the stored glucose.
SEE ALSO INSULIN RESISTANCE
INTERMITTENT FASTING (IF):
I.F. is a cycle of eating that limits the hours in which you consume your entire day’s calories. A good starting I.F. schedule is 8 hours of consumption with 16 hours of fasting. (Noon to 8p.m. is a popular eating window on I.F.) This scheduled fasting promotes fat-burn and autophagy. Many ketoers combine I.F. with carb restriction to lose fat even faster and because the lack of hunger and energy boost that come with keto makes I.F. much easier.
SEE ALSO AUTOPHAGY
The keto flu is a set of symptoms similar to the actual flu that some people can get during the transition into keto and even into fat adaptation. Lethargy, soreness, dizziness, nausea, insomnia are all symptoms of the keto flu.
Keto flu is avoidable and easily resolved if experienced. It’s caused by a lack of electrolytes like sodium, magnesium, and potassium. The normal levels of these electrolytes can dip during keto as keto acts as a diuretic and can take these minerals with it. Consuming more salt and green veggies will quickly restore balance and ease the keto flu.
SEE ALSO ELECTROLYTES
A keto rash is very rare and its exact cause is unknown. It’s more likely to affect teenaged females and it looks like hives or raised, red lesions. If the rash appears, it will go away on its own. Because the cause can’t be pinpointed, the best course of action for getting rid of the rash isn’t know. But it’s recommended that reintroducing carbs then weaning off them more gradually is a way to heal the rash and keep it from returning as you slowly get back into ketosis.
Keto is short for ketosis, the metabolic state you are putting your body in when you embark on the keto journey. Keto is short hand for the Ketogenic diet and many ketoers will say, “I’m doing keto,” or “I’m in keto.”
SEE ALSO STANDARD KETO DIET
Ketoacidosis is a complication that can occur in people with type 1 diabetes. It occurs when too many ketones mix elevated blood glucose. Ketoacidosis can be dangerous for type 1 diabetics. Despite beginning with the same four letters, ketoacidosis and the ketogenic diet are two completely separate things and the ketogenic diet is completely safe and beneficial for those who do not suffer insulin production issues.
SEE ALSO TYPE 1 DIABETES
Ketogenic is the metabolic state that results from the keto diet. A body in a kenogetic state runs on ketones taken from a diet high in healthy fats and severely restricted carb intake that limits glucose production.
SEE ALSO KETONE
Ketones are created by the liver from the fatty acids derived from the fats you eat. On keto, ketones become your new energy source, replacing glucose as a healthier and more efficient way of fueling your body.
LCHF is a diet that is low in carbs and high in fat (Low-Carb High-Fat).
Lypolysis is the process that breaks down fat into fatty acids for use by the liver that then turns the fatty acids into the ketones the body uses as fuel when in a state of ketosis.
SEE ALSO FAT
Macros are the major metabolic players that come from the foods you eat. There are 3 important macros: Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates. Fat and Protein are necessary, but carbs can be eliminated without affecting health. Keto is mainly concerned with eating enough fat and getting the right amount of protein to put the body into the metabolic state of ketosis.
MEDIUM CHAIN TRYGLYCERIDES (MCT):
Medium chain triglycerides are moderate-length fatty acid chains that supply the liver with the best fuel for producing ketones. Since ketones are the body’s new fuel -replacing glucose- ketoers are always looking for the best foods to promote the production of ketones in the body. MCTs are fats that come from foods like coconut oil, cheeses and dairy foods, and can be easily added to a dish with the use of MCT oil supplements.
Monounsaturated fats are another of the unquestionably healthy fats that ketoers love as it promotes ketone production and ketosis. Monounsaturated fats can help with lowering LDL cholesterol, supplying vitamin D, and helping with new cell production and autophagy. Monounsaturated fats are found in foods like olive oil, avocados, and many kinds of nuts.
Net carbs are the total number of carbs that can actually be absorbed by the body. While fiber is technically a carbohydrate, it cannot be absorbed by the body and will not affect blood sugar levels. Because of this, fiber carbs are subtracted from overall carbs to leave the real number of net effective carbs your body will actually turn into glucose. Net carbs are the only carbs counted when in keto.
NON-SCALE VICTORY (NSV):
A non-scale victory, usually shortened to NSV in the keto community, is a positive experience that results from the efforts of your keto journey that happen away from the numbers on your bathroom scale. For example, compliments on your trimming waistline, pants that fit more comfortably, and cleared up skin are all NSVs.
Ketosis is a state at which your body produces ketones in the liver, shifting the body's metabolism away from glucose and towards fat burning. The presence of ketones in your body is a definite proof of ketosis. Nutritional ketosis is generally defined by serum ketones ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mM.
Polyunsaturated fats are from the family of healthy fats that promote ketone production on a keto diet. Polyunsaturated fats include Omegas 3 and come from fish, veggies, and oils. They also help reduce LDL cholesterol and promote brain and nerve protection when metabolized. They are called polyunsaturated fats due to their molecular multi bonds.
Protein is one of the 3 main macros in your diet. Unlike carbs, protein is necessary for proper muscle function and repair. On a ketogenic diet, protein is limited to 25% of daily calories because of the metabolic transformation into glucose protein can undergo, a process known as gluconeogenesis. If gluconeogensis occurs due to too much protein, you will be kicked out of ketosis.
Saturated fat is a moderately healthy fat for keto. Red meats, creams, oils that are solid at room temperature are all considered saturated fats. The saturation in saturated fats refers to the hydrogen molecules that link to the carbon atom in the highest numbers possible. It’s long been held that saturated fats can raise LDL cholesterol that harms arteries, but recent studies are suggesting that saturated fats only raise LDL cholesterol when an abundance of glucose is available in the blood. When on a carb restricted diet like keto, saturated fats operate normally and help promote ketone production.
SEE ALSO FATS, POLYUNSATURATED FAT, MONOUNSATURATED FATS, KETONES
STANDARD KETO DIET:
The Standard Keto diet (SKD) is another name for the keto diet. SKD is used most in reference to Targeted Keto and Cyclical Keto, 2 variations of the keto diet that allow for high athletic performance and gains by allowing strategically eaten carbs.
A standard keto diet is 70% fat, 25% protein, 5% carb
CHECK OUT THE niKETO CALCULATOR TO DETERMINE YOUR MACROS
Sugar alcohols are sweet compounds such as erythritol, xylitol, or sorbitol that can be used in place of sugar on a keto diet. Sugar alcohols don’t metabolize as a sugar and will not affect blood sugar, nor do they produce glucose.
TARGETED KETO DIET:
Targeted keto (TKD) is the strategic use of carbs to help improve athletic performance during a workout. By eating 20g of carbs right before a strenuous workout session, or eating the carbs steadily throughout a workout, you give your body a glycogen store to use when fatigue might usually set in and limit your performance. By targeting your carbs and working at max effort, you are assured that your body with deplete the carbs through use rather than store them, leaving you in keto.
Transfats are manufactured fats that provide no benefits to your keto journey. They are used in deep frying and many processed, packaged foods. They should be avoided at all costs. The U.S. has recently banned them and their total removal from shelves is set to be completed in 2020.
SEE ALSO FATS
TYPE 1 DIABETES:
Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes, is an autoimmune disease that prevents the body from producing enough insulin. Because of the risk of ketoacidosis, type 1 diabetics must be very careful when embarking on a ketogenic diet, making sure to deplete their glucose completely.
TYPE 2 DIABETES:
Type 2 diabetes is often called sugar diabetes and can result from obesity, overeating, and consuming too much sugar. Having too much glucose in the blood results in insulin resistance which slows insulin production and makes processing glucose more difficult.
The keto diet is considered by many doctors to be the best and possibly only curative therapy for type 2 diabetes.
TYPE 3 DIABETES:
Type 3 diabetes is a newer term being used for Alzheimer’s dementia. Alzheimer’s is a degenerative disease in which the brain’s neurons die off faster than they can be replaced, leading to a decrease in brain function. This is being referred to as type 3 diabetes due to the link established between insulin resistance in the brain and abnormal blood glucose, similar to the effects type 2 diabetes has on the rest of the body.
Studies are showing that Alzheimer’s is hitting people in greater numbers and at younger ages, 1 in 9 Americans over 65 is diagnosed with Alzheimer’s. This rise in Alzheimer’s dementia over the last few decades matches the rise in diabetes related obesity and the national obesity epidemic along with the rise in our national diet’s sugar content.
Like type 2 diabetes, type 3 diabetes is showing very positive results when put on a ketogenic diet as the low-carb intake minimizes glucose and insulin resistance.
SEE ALSO TYPE 2 DIABETES